The Nanonis Tramea base configuration provides the necessary elements required for performing high-speed DC transport measurements. It provides 8 precision, high-speed DC sources, 8 precision analog inputs, a full-featured software solution for data generation and acquisition and a powerful generic API.
All signal conditioning, FPGA and real-time signal processing are also included in the base configuration. It also includes the Tramea real-time Controller TRCe, Tramea Signal Conversion TSC and Nanonis software, as well as:
As standard the Nanonis Tramea comes with 8 inputs and 8 outputs. With the combination of Tramea Signal Conversion units and Tramea Signal Output units, the Nanonis Tramea can have up to 24 precision DC inputs and up to 48 DC outputs.
The table shows the numbers of input and outputs with different possible combinations of TSC and TSO.
By expanding the number of inputs and outputs with a combination of TSC and TSO units, there is no compromise on signal quality. The extra channels are integrated into the software, so there is no change in the workflow of the system and additional signals are seamlessly integrated into the Tramea software.
TSC – Tramea Signal Conversion
For samples with large numbers of contacts and when external instruments deliver many signals which need to be digitised, 8 inputs and 8 outputs may not be enough.
An additional TSC gives you an extra 8 outputs and 8 inputs in addition to the 8 outputs and 8 inputs of the base configuration. Up to 2 extra TSCs on top of the base configuration can be used in combination with the base configuration to give as many as 24 inputs.
Options: Base configuration (1 TSC in total), TSC-1 (2 TSCs in total), TSC-2 (3 TSCs in total).
TSO – Tramea Signal Output
For devices that require a large number of gate voltages, the number of outputs required is usually much larger than the amount of signals to be digitised. 8 input channels of the Tramea base configuration may offer sufficient digitizing channels for most applications, but 8 output channels might not cover all the requirements for sample driving voltages.
An additional TSO immediately gives an extra 16 output channels to the 8 inputs and 8 outputs of the base configuration. Up to 2 TSOs can be added to the base configuration to give a maximum number of 40 outputs. When combining this with the TSC modules, a maximum number of 48 high precision, low-noise outputs can be provided.
Options: TSO-1 (1 TSO in total), TSO-2 (2 TSOs in total).
MCVA5 – Multichannel voltage preamplifier
The Nanonis MCVA5 differential multichannel preamplifier offers 4 independent differential channels. It provides low-noise amplification, very high input impedance, high common-mode rejection, gain up to 1000, and differential inputs.
The 4 differential inputs offer an input impedance greater than 10 TΩ to GND and very low input bias currents of less than 2 pA (typ.). They can be operated in either A-B (differential) or A (single-ended) mode or left floating, and they can be DC- or AC-coupled. The amplification circuit has user-selectable gains of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 and a bandwidth in excess of 500 kHz. Despite the very high input impedance spectral noise is as low as 4 nV/√Hz (SE, gain 100/1000).
The quantum dot simulator lets you explore the complete Nanonis Tramea measurement system as if it were connected to a real quantum dot. Learn the operation of the software without any risk. It simulates a typical single top-gate defined quantum dot and includes the full feature set of the software. Possible measurements include single gate sweeps, left- vs. right-gate sweeps as well as stability diagrams. Lock-in operation allows differential conductance measurements.
Tramea is easily expandable for customised experiments using either the existing additional software modules or user-programmed functions.
The high performance digital lock-in amplifiers let you modulate and demodulate any of the input and output signals available with frequencies up to 40 kHz. Up to 8 lock-in modules can be used independently from each other or synchronised for phase-coherent operation.
Up to 8 lock-in amplifiers - Up to 8 dual phase lock-in modules, modulating up to 8 of any output or input signal up to 40 kHz while using the high resolution 20-bit outputs.
Demodulator for lock-in amplifier - Extra demodulators for the dual lock-in module LD5-MF for use with single and dual lock-in. This gives the full 8 demodulators on the 2 lock-ins for multifrequency operation.
8 dual phase lock-in module with 8 independent frequency generators and 8 independent dual-phase demodulators.
An efficient method of adding feedback to the measurement system. It adds a flexible control loop functionality to the Tramea software.
Front panel of the PI controller
A function generator is often simpler and more efficient to use than scripts, when the same waveform or pulse sequence needs to be applied periodically. Any custom waveform can be uploaded and generate periodic patterns with a frequency between 500 mHz to 15 kHz by using the high precision and low noise 20-bit outputs. For higher slew rates the function generator can address the single fast analog output of the TSC offering 1 MHz analog bandwidth.
Front panel of the function generator software module
With the LabVIEW programming interface the user can design their own experiments and customise routines making full use of the LabVIEW scripts.
The LabVIEW programming interface offers more functions and a simpler approach to programming than the TCP interface which is part of the base configuration, delivered as a standard API.
Ready made example are available which can be used straight away or as a starting point for customised routines and external instruments are easily integrated.
LabVIEW VIs provided in the LabVIEW Programming Interface
The scripting module offers 100✕ faster execution speed, complementing the Nanonis Programming Interface, which comes as standard in the base configuration. With a time-deterministic approach and 50 µs time interval between commands, scripting significantly boosts the execution speed, reducing measurement time.
Example of a script written using the scripting module
The high-resolution oscilloscope and spectrum analyser gives precise analysis in the frequency domain. For processes which take place in the ms and µs timeframes, standard oscilloscopes lack the combination of dynamic range, resolution and noise performance. The high resolution oscilloscope and spectrum analyser module overcomes the limitations a standard oscilloscope would have because of the precise and low noise 18-bit inputs of the TSC and the tight integration of the Nanonis software.
Transport measurements often need the acquisition of time dependent signals with typical time scales ranging from µs to minutes. The high resolution oscilloscope give access to data acquisitions up to 1 MSPS but also work with variable acquisition times and trace lengths up to 1 million points. It also provides high frequency resolution down to mHz range.
High resolution oscilloscope